Kubernetes (K8s)

GoPkg Widget CII Best Practices

Kubernetes, also known as K8s, is an open source system for managing containerized applications
across multiple hosts. It provides basic mechanisms for deployment, maintenance,
and scaling of applications.

Kubernetes builds upon a decade and a half of experience at Google running
production workloads at scale using a system called Borg,
combined with best-of-breed ideas and practices from the community.

Kubernetes is hosted by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF).
If your company wants to help shape the evolution of
technologies that are container-packaged, dynamically scheduled,
and microservices-oriented, consider joining the CNCF.
For details about who’s involved and how Kubernetes plays a role,
read the CNCF announcement.

To start using K8s

See our documentation on kubernetes.io.

Try our interactive tutorial.

Take a free course on Scalable Microservices with Kubernetes.

To use Kubernetes code as a library in other applications, see the list of published components.
Use of the k8s.io/kubernetes module or k8s.io/kubernetes/... packages as libraries is not supported.

To start developing K8s

The community repository hosts all information about
building Kubernetes from source, how to contribute code
and documentation, who to contact about what, etc.

If you want to build Kubernetes right away there are two options:

You have a working Go environment.
mkdir -p $GOPATH/src/k8s.io
cd $GOPATH/src/k8s.io
git clone https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
cd kubernetes
You have a working Docker environment.
git clone https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
cd kubernetes
make quick-release

For the full story, head over to the developer’s documentation.


If you need support, start with the troubleshooting guide,
and work your way through the process that we’ve outlined.

That said, if you have questions, reach out to us
one way or another.


The PHP Interpreter

PHP is a popular general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to
web development. Fast, flexible and pragmatic, PHP powers everything from your
blog to the most popular websites in the world. PHP is distributed under the
PHP License v3.01.

Build status
Build status
Build Status
Fuzzing Status


The PHP manual is available at php.net/docs.


Prebuilt packages and binaries

Prebuilt packages and binaries can be used to get up and running fast with PHP.

For Windows, the PHP binaries can be obtained from
windows.php.net. After extracting the archive the
*.exe files are ready to use.

For other systems, see the installation chapter.

Building PHP source code

For Windows, see Build your own PHP on Windows.

For a minimal PHP build from Git, you will need autoconf, bison, and re2c. For
a default build, you will additionally need libxml2 and libsqlite3.

On Ubuntu, you can install these using:

sudo apt install -y pkg-config build-essential autoconf bison re2c \
                    libxml2-dev libsqlite3-dev

On Fedora, you can install these using:

sudo dnf install re2c bison autoconf make libtool ccache libxml2-devel sqlite-devel

Generate configure:


Configure your build. --enable-debug is recommended for development, see
./configure --help for a full list of options.

# For development
./configure --enable-debug
# For production

Build PHP. To speed up the build, specify the maximum number of jobs using -j:

make -j4

The number of jobs should usually match the number of available cores, which
can be determined using nproc.

Testing PHP source code

PHP ships with an extensive test suite, the command make test is used after
successful compilation of the sources to run this test suite.

It is possible to run tests using multiple cores by setting -jN in

make TEST_PHP_ARGS=-j4 test

Shall run make test with a maximum of 4 concurrent jobs: Generally the maximum
number of jobs should not exceed the number of cores available.

The qa.php.net site provides more detailed info about
testing and quality assurance.

Installing PHP built from source

After a successful build (and test), PHP may be installed with:

make install

Depending on your permissions and prefix, make install may need super user

PHP extensions

Extensions provide additional functionality on top of PHP. PHP consists of many
essential bundled extensions. Additional extensions can be found in the PHP
Extension Community Library - PECL.


The PHP source code is located in the Git repository at
git.php.net. Contributions are most welcome by forking
the GitHub mirror repository and sending a
pull request.

Discussions are done on GitHub, but depending on the topic can also be relayed
to the official PHP developer mailing list internals@lists.php.net.

New features require an RFC and must be accepted by the developers. See
Request for comments - RFC and
Voting on PHP features for more information
on the process.

Bug fixes do not require an RFC but require a bug tracker ticket. Open a
ticket at bugs.php.net and reference the bug id using

Fix #55371: get_magic_quotes_gpc() throws deprecation warning

After removing magic quotes, the get_magic_quotes_gpc function caused a
deprecated warning. get_magic_quotes_gpc can be used to detect the
magic_quotes behavior and therefore should not raise a warning at any time.
The patch removes this warning.

Pull requests are not merged directly on GitHub. All PRs will be pulled and
pushed through git.php.net. See
Git workflow for more details.

Guidelines for contributors

See further documents in the repository for more information on how to


For the list of people who’ve put work into PHP, please see the
PHP credits page.




For hexo < 5.0

git clone https://github.com/autoload/hexo-theme-auto.git themes/auto

For hexo >= 5.0

npm i hexo-theme-ayer -S
  • If this theme is newly installed, a _config.auto.yml file will be generated in the root directory after the installation is complete, and you can directly edit the _config.auto.yml file for configuration.
  • If it is a theme upgrade, you can use the configuration method of hexo < 5.0, or you can move the original configuration file to the root directory and rename it to _config.auto.yml.


Modify theme setting in _config.yml to auto

theme: auto


cd themes/auto
git pull

Multi Language Support

zh-CN(Simplified Chinese) en(English) zh-TW(traditional Chinese) ja(Japanese) es(Spanish) de(German) fr(French) ru(Russian) ko(Korean) vi(Vietnamese) nl(Dutch) no(Norwegian) pt(Portuguese)

English is default languge, if you want to change, modify language option in _config.yml file in your blog’s root folder.


# Menu-Sidebar
Home: /
Archives: /archives
Categories: /categories
Tags: /tags
About: /about

# Sidebar
sidebar: right
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MIT License

Copyright © 2020 David Wan


This README is just a fast quick start document. You can find more detailed documentation at redis.io.

What is Redis?

Redis is often referred to as a data structures server. What this means is that Redis provides access to mutable data structures via a set of commands, which are sent using a server-client model with TCP sockets and a simple protocol. So different processes can query and modify the same data structures in a shared way.

Data structures implemented into Redis have a few special properties:

  • Redis cares to store them on disk, even if they are always served and modified into the server memory. This means that Redis is fast, but that it is also non-volatile.
  • The implementation of data structures emphasizes memory efficiency, so data structures inside Redis will likely use less memory compared to the same data structure modelled using a high-level programming language.
  • Redis offers a number of features that are natural to find in a database, like replication, tunable levels of durability, clustering, and high availability.

Another good example is to think of Redis as a more complex version of memcached, where the operations are not just SETs and GETs, but operations that work with complex data types like Lists, Sets, ordered data structures, and so forth.

If you want to know more, this is a list of selected starting points:

Building Redis

Redis can be compiled and used on Linux, OSX, OpenBSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD.
We support big endian and little endian architectures, and both 32 bit
and 64 bit systems.

It may compile on Solaris derived systems (for instance SmartOS) but our
support for this platform is best effort and Redis is not guaranteed to
work as well as in Linux, OSX, and *BSD.

It is as simple as:

% make

To build with TLS support, you’ll need OpenSSL development libraries (e.g.
libssl-dev on Debian/Ubuntu) and run:

% make BUILD_TLS=yes

To build with systemd support, you’ll need systemd development libraries (such
as libsystemd-dev on Debian/Ubuntu or systemd-devel on CentOS) and run:

% make USE_SYSTEMD=yes

To append a suffix to Redis program names, use:

% make PROG_SUFFIX="-alt"

You can run a 32 bit Redis binary using:

% make 32bit

After building Redis, it is a good idea to test it using:

% make test

If TLS is built, running the tests with TLS enabled (you will need tcl-tls

% ./utils/gen-test-certs.sh
% ./runtest --tls

Fixing build problems with dependencies or cached build options

Redis has some dependencies which are included in the deps directory.
make does not automatically rebuild dependencies even if something in
the source code of dependencies changes.

When you update the source code with git pull or when code inside the
dependencies tree is modified in any other way, make sure to use the following
command in order to really clean everything and rebuild from scratch:

make distclean

This will clean: jemalloc, lua, hiredis, linenoise.

Also if you force certain build options like 32bit target, no C compiler
optimizations (for debugging purposes), and other similar build time options,
those options are cached indefinitely until you issue a make distclean

Fixing problems building 32 bit binaries

If after building Redis with a 32 bit target you need to rebuild it
with a 64 bit target, or the other way around, you need to perform a
make distclean in the root directory of the Redis distribution.

In case of build errors when trying to build a 32 bit binary of Redis, try
the following steps:

  • Install the package libc6-dev-i386 (also try g++-multilib).
  • Try using the following command line instead of make 32bit:
    make CFLAGS="-m32 -march=native" LDFLAGS="-m32"


Selecting a non-default memory allocator when building Redis is done by setting
the MALLOC environment variable. Redis is compiled and linked against libc
malloc by default, with the exception of jemalloc being the default on Linux
systems. This default was picked because jemalloc has proven to have fewer
fragmentation problems than libc malloc.

To force compiling against libc malloc, use:

% make MALLOC=libc

To compile against jemalloc on Mac OS X systems, use:

% make MALLOC=jemalloc

Monotonic clock

By default, Redis will build using the POSIX clock_gettime function as the
monotonic clock source. On most modern systems, the internal processor clock
can be used to improve performance. Cautions can be found here:

To build with support for the processor’s internal instruction clock, use:


Verbose build

Redis will build with a user-friendly colorized output by default.
If you want to see a more verbose output, use the following:

% make V=1

Running Redis

To run Redis with the default configuration, just type:

% cd src
% ./redis-server

If you want to provide your redis.conf, you have to run it using an additional
parameter (the path of the configuration file):

% cd src
% ./redis-server /path/to/redis.conf

It is possible to alter the Redis configuration by passing parameters directly
as options using the command line. Examples:

% ./redis-server --port 9999 --replicaof 6379
% ./redis-server /etc/redis/6379.conf --loglevel debug

All the options in redis.conf are also supported as options using the command
line, with exactly the same name.

Running Redis with TLS:

Please consult the TLS.md file for more information on
how to use Redis with TLS.

Playing with Redis

You can use redis-cli to play with Redis. Start a redis-server instance,
then in another terminal try the following:

% cd src
% ./redis-cli
redis> ping
redis> set foo bar
redis> get foo
redis> incr mycounter
(integer) 1
redis> incr mycounter
(integer) 2

You can find the list of all the available commands at http://redis.io/commands.

Installing Redis

In order to install Redis binaries into /usr/local/bin, just use:

% make install

You can use make PREFIX=/some/other/directory install if you wish to use a
different destination.

Make install will just install binaries in your system, but will not configure
init scripts and configuration files in the appropriate place. This is not
needed if you just want to play a bit with Redis, but if you are installing
it the proper way for a production system, we have a script that does this
for Ubuntu and Debian systems:

% cd utils
% ./install_server.sh

Note: install_server.sh will not work on Mac OSX; it is built for Linux only.

The script will ask you a few questions and will setup everything you need
to run Redis properly as a background daemon that will start again on
system reboots.

You’ll be able to stop and start Redis using the script named
/etc/init.d/redis_<portnumber>, for instance /etc/init.d/redis_6379.

Code contributions

Note: By contributing code to the Redis project in any form, including sending
a pull request via Github, a code fragment or patch via private email or
public discussion groups, you agree to release your code under the terms
of the BSD license that you can find in the COPYING file included in the Redis
source distribution.

Please see the CONTRIBUTING file in this source distribution for more
information, including details on our process for security bugs/vulnerabilities.

Redis internals

If you are reading this README you are likely in front of a Github page
or you just untarred the Redis distribution tar ball. In both the cases
you are basically one step away from the source code, so here we explain
the Redis source code layout, what is in each file as a general idea, the
most important functions and structures inside the Redis server and so forth.
We keep all the discussion at a high level without digging into the details
since this document would be huge otherwise and our code base changes
continuously, but a general idea should be a good starting point to
understand more. Moreover most of the code is heavily commented and easy
to follow.

Source code layout

The Redis root directory just contains this README, the Makefile which
calls the real Makefile inside the src directory and an example
configuration for Redis and Sentinel. You can find a few shell
scripts that are used in order to execute the Redis, Redis Cluster and
Redis Sentinel unit tests, which are implemented inside the tests

Inside the root are the following important directories:

  • src: contains the Redis implementation, written in C.
  • tests: contains the unit tests, implemented in Tcl.
  • deps: contains libraries Redis uses. Everything needed to compile Redis is inside this directory; your system just needs to provide libc, a POSIX compatible interface and a C compiler. Notably deps contains a copy of jemalloc, which is the default allocator of Redis under Linux. Note that under deps there are also things which started with the Redis project, but for which the main repository is not redis/redis.

There are a few more directories but they are not very important for our goals
here. We’ll focus mostly on src, where the Redis implementation is contained,
exploring what there is inside each file. The order in which files are
exposed is the logical one to follow in order to disclose different layers
of complexity incrementally.

Note: lately Redis was refactored quite a bit. Function names and file
names have been changed, so you may find that this documentation reflects the
unstable branch more closely. For instance, in Redis 3.0 the server.c
and server.h files were named redis.c and redis.h. However the overall
structure is the same. Keep in mind that all the new developments and pull
requests should be performed against the unstable branch.


The simplest way to understand how a program works is to understand the
data structures it uses. So we’ll start from the main header file of
Redis, which is server.h.

All the server configuration and in general all the shared state is
defined in a global structure called server, of type struct redisServer.
A few important fields in this structure are:

  • server.db is an array of Redis databases, where data is stored.
  • server.commands is the command table.
  • server.clients is a linked list of clients connected to the server.
  • server.master is a special client, the master, if the instance is a replica.

There are tons of other fields. Most fields are commented directly inside
the structure definition.

Another important Redis data structure is the one defining a client.
In the past it was called redisClient, now just client. The structure
has many fields, here we’ll just show the main ones:

struct client {
    int fd;
    sds querybuf;
    int argc;
    robj **argv;
    redisDb *db;
    int flags;
    list *reply;
    ... many other fields ...

The client structure defines a connected client:

  • The fd field is the client socket file descriptor.
  • argc and argv are populated with the command the client is executing, so that functions implementing a given Redis command can read the arguments.
  • querybuf accumulates the requests from the client, which are parsed by the Redis server according to the Redis protocol and executed by calling the implementations of the commands the client is executing.
  • reply and buf are dynamic and static buffers that accumulate the replies the server sends to the client. These buffers are incrementally written to the socket as soon as the file descriptor is writeable.

As you can see in the client structure above, arguments in a command
are described as robj structures. The following is the full robj
structure, which defines a Redis object:

typedef struct redisObject {
    unsigned type:4;
    unsigned encoding:4;
    unsigned lru:LRU_BITS; /* lru time (relative to server.lruclock) */
    int refcount;
    void *ptr;
} robj;

Basically this structure can represent all the basic Redis data types like
strings, lists, sets, sorted sets and so forth. The interesting thing is that
it has a type field, so that it is possible to know what type a given
object has, and a refcount, so that the same object can be referenced
in multiple places without allocating it multiple times. Finally the ptr
field points to the actual representation of the object, which might vary
even for the same type, depending on the encoding used.

Redis objects are used extensively in the Redis internals, however in order
to avoid the overhead of indirect accesses, recently in many places
we just use plain dynamic strings not wrapped inside a Redis object.


This is the entry point of the Redis server, where the main() function
is defined. The following are the most important steps in order to startup
the Redis server.

  • initServerConfig() sets up the default values of the server structure.
  • initServer() allocates the data structures needed to operate, setup the listening socket, and so forth.
  • aeMain() starts the event loop which listens for new connections.

There are two special functions called periodically by the event loop:

  1. serverCron() is called periodically (according to server.hz frequency), and performs tasks that must be performed from time to time, like checking for timed out clients.
  2. beforeSleep() is called every time the event loop fired, Redis served a few requests, and is returning back into the event loop.

Inside server.c you can find code that handles other vital things of the Redis server:

  • call() is used in order to call a given command in the context of a given client.
  • activeExpireCycle() handles eviction of keys with a time to live set via the EXPIRE command.
  • performEvictions() is called when a new write command should be performed but Redis is out of memory according to the maxmemory directive.
  • The global variable redisCommandTable defines all the Redis commands, specifying the name of the command, the function implementing the command, the number of arguments required, and other properties of each command.


This file defines all the I/O functions with clients, masters and replicas
(which in Redis are just special clients):

  • createClient() allocates and initializes a new client.
  • the addReply*() family of functions are used by command implementations in order to append data to the client structure, that will be transmitted to the client as a reply for a given command executed.
  • writeToClient() transmits the data pending in the output buffers to the client and is called by the writable event handler sendReplyToClient().
  • readQueryFromClient() is the readable event handler and accumulates data read from the client into the query buffer.
  • processInputBuffer() is the entry point in order to parse the client query buffer according to the Redis protocol. Once commands are ready to be processed, it calls processCommand() which is defined inside server.c in order to actually execute the command.
  • freeClient() deallocates, disconnects and removes a client.

aof.c and rdb.c

As you can guess from the names, these files implement the RDB and AOF
persistence for Redis. Redis uses a persistence model based on the fork()
system call in order to create a thread with the same (shared) memory
content of the main Redis thread. This secondary thread dumps the content
of the memory on disk. This is used by rdb.c to create the snapshots
on disk and by aof.c in order to perform the AOF rewrite when the
append only file gets too big.

The implementation inside aof.c has additional functions in order to
implement an API that allows commands to append new commands into the AOF
file as clients execute them.

The call() function defined inside server.c is responsible for calling
the functions that in turn will write the commands into the AOF.


Certain Redis commands operate on specific data types; others are general.
Examples of generic commands are DEL and EXPIRE. They operate on keys
and not on their values specifically. All those generic commands are
defined inside db.c.

Moreover db.c implements an API in order to perform certain operations
on the Redis dataset without directly accessing the internal data structures.

The most important functions inside db.c which are used in many command
implementations are the following:

  • lookupKeyRead() and lookupKeyWrite() are used in order to get a pointer to the value associated to a given key, or NULL if the key does not exist.
  • dbAdd() and its higher level counterpart setKey() create a new key in a Redis database.
  • dbDelete() removes a key and its associated value.
  • emptyDb() removes an entire single database or all the databases defined.

The rest of the file implements the generic commands exposed to the client.


The robj structure defining Redis objects was already described. Inside
object.c there are all the functions that operate with Redis objects at
a basic level, like functions to allocate new objects, handle the reference
counting and so forth. Notable functions inside this file:

  • incrRefCount() and decrRefCount() are used in order to increment or decrement an object reference count. When it drops to 0 the object is finally freed.
  • createObject() allocates a new object. There are also specialized functions to allocate string objects having a specific content, like createStringObjectFromLongLong() and similar functions.

This file also implements the OBJECT command.


This is one of the most complex files inside Redis, it is recommended to
approach it only after getting a bit familiar with the rest of the code base.
In this file there is the implementation of both the master and replica role
of Redis.

One of the most important functions inside this file is replicationFeedSlaves() that writes commands to the clients representing replica instances connected
to our master, so that the replicas can get the writes performed by the clients:
this way their data set will remain synchronized with the one in the master.

This file also implements both the SYNC and PSYNC commands that are
used in order to perform the first synchronization between masters and
replicas, or to continue the replication after a disconnection.

Other C files

  • t_hash.c, t_list.c, t_set.c, t_string.c, t_zset.c and t_stream.c contains the implementation of the Redis data types. They implement both an API to access a given data type, and the client command implementations for these data types.
  • ae.c implements the Redis event loop, it’s a self contained library which is simple to read and understand.
  • sds.c is the Redis string library, check http://github.com/antirez/sds for more information.
  • anet.c is a library to use POSIX networking in a simpler way compared to the raw interface exposed by the kernel.
  • dict.c is an implementation of a non-blocking hash table which rehashes incrementally.
  • scripting.c implements Lua scripting. It is completely self-contained and isolated from the rest of the Redis implementation and is simple enough to understand if you are familiar with the Lua API.
  • cluster.c implements the Redis Cluster. Probably a good read only after being very familiar with the rest of the Redis code base. If you want to read cluster.c make sure to read the Redis Cluster specification.

Anatomy of a Redis command

All the Redis commands are defined in the following way:

void foobarCommand(client *c) {
    printf("%s",c->argv[1]->ptr); /* Do something with the argument. */
    addReply(c,shared.ok); /* Reply something to the client. */

The command is then referenced inside server.c in the command table:


In the above example 2 is the number of arguments the command takes,
while "rtF" are the command flags, as documented in the command table
top comment inside server.c.

After the command operates in some way, it returns a reply to the client,
usually using addReply() or a similar function defined inside networking.c.

There are tons of command implementations inside the Redis source code
that can serve as examples of actual commands implementations. Writing
a few toy commands can be a good exercise to get familiar with the code base.

There are also many other files not described here, but it is useless to
cover everything. We just want to help you with the first steps.
Eventually you’ll find your way inside the Redis code base :-)



Manage all of your organization’s APIs in Postman, with the industry’s most complete API development environment.

Postman App Support

If you have a feature request, a new integration idea or you would like to file a bug report, please use this Github issue tracker.

We recommend that you search the issue tracker to check if someone else has already reported the issue and whether there is a known solution that you can use. This would be the fastest way for you to find a solution to any issue that you are currently facing.

If you are adding a bug report, please add detailed steps to reproduce the bug, the Postman version you’re using, and your OS version. Any additional files (collections, data dumps, console errors, screenshots) would be very helpful and would help us to narrow down the issue as quickly as possible.

We have compiled a quick set of guidelines for reporting issues.

Account Specific Queries:

If you have any billing or account-specific queries, reach out to us at help@postman.com.

We are also there as @getpostman on Twitter. Feel free to drop in a line wherever it is easiest for you. Twitter would be the best place for you to stay updated with the latest news, features, and releases regarding Postman.

The Community

The Postman Community Forum offers you different ways to engage with other Postman enthusiasts. Feel free to drop by and say hello.

Sign in using your Postman account to participate in the discussions. Don’t want to log in? Then lurk on the sidelines and absorb all the knowledge.

Product Roadmap

If you are curious about the features and enhancements planned for upcoming releases, check out Postman’s roadmap.

Want early access to these features? Some of the enhancements are available in our latest Canary builds available for download on OSX (x64) / Windows (x86 or x64) / Linux (x86 or x64).

Documentation and Tutorials

If you are looking for more information regarding features, installation, and usage of the app, head over to the documentation section on our website. You can also have a look at our blog at https://blog.postman.com for interesting tutorials, development stories, and platform updates.


Guidelines for reporting issues

We have put together a short set of guidelines you can follow while adding an issue to our GitHub issue tracker. Following this should help speedy resolution of issues.

  1. This issue tracker is only for Postman App related issues, along with other services accessible from the app.
    If you have Newman specific issues, a better place to report them would be the Newman issue tracker at https://github.com/postmanlabs/newman/issues

  2. If you are facing a Postman Cloud-related issue (such as sync, cloud-api, documenter, etc) and you want to include personal information such as your username or collection names, then mail us at help@postman.com.

  3. If you want to report a security issue in any of Postman’s services or products, read our security reporting guidelines and policy for more details.

  4. Answer to questions along the lines of “How do I… in Postman” should be in our online documentation at https://learning.postman.com/. If you are unable to find a how-to guide in our online documentation, feel free to ask your question on our Postman Community Forum.

  5. Before reporting an issue use the search feature on the issues page to check if there are issues similar to yours. A lot of issues are duplicates, and it is hard to keep track of them or respond when the issues are solved. If you find your issue already reported, feel free to add a “thumbs up” reaction and we will keep a note of it.

  6. When reporting a new issue in the issue tracker, check whether it helps to answer the following questions:

    • Which Postman App and Operating System version you are using. You can check this out in Settings -> About section.

    • Is the bug reproducible every time, or do you see it occasionally?

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    • If it is a UI issue, a screenshot or GIF will help tremendously. (Tip: For quick gifs, check out http://www.cockos.com/licecap/)

    • If the issue is related to a script in the sandbox, attach the full code snippet and ensure that this is formatted correctly using the code block markdown syntax

    • Do you have the Postman Interceptor switched on? (applicable for the Chrome app)

    • If the request/response flow is not working, be sure to check and include details from the DevTools window (More on this at https://learning.postman.com/docs/postman/sending-api-requests/debugging-and-logs/).

    We are hiring!

Want to help us solve these issues? We are hiring engineers! Postman has grown a lot since it started as a side-project. More than 10 million people use Postman within thousands of companies across the world for everything API related. We are working hard to meet the expectations of the Postman community. If you want to build something amazing with us, reach out!

About Postman

Postman is a collaboration platform for API development. Postman’s features simplify each step of building an API and streamline collaboration so you can create better APIs—faster.

Read more on our website: https://www.postman.com/

If you have issues or code contribution pertaining to Postman legacy version, head over to the postmanlabs/postman-chrome-extension-legacy repository.


Build Status Total Downloads Latest Stable Version License

About Laravel

Laravel is a web application framework with expressive, elegant syntax. We believe development must be an enjoyable and creative experience to be truly fulfilling. Laravel takes the pain out of development by easing common tasks used in many web projects, such as:

Laravel is accessible, powerful, and provides tools required for large, robust applications.

Learning Laravel

Laravel has the most extensive and thorough documentation and video tutorial library of all modern web application frameworks, making it a breeze to get started with the framework.

If you don’t feel like reading, Laracasts can help. Laracasts contains over 1500 video tutorials on a range of topics including Laravel, modern PHP, unit testing, and JavaScript. Boost your skills by digging into our comprehensive video library.

Laravel Sponsors

We would like to extend our thanks to the following sponsors for funding Laravel development. If you are interested in becoming a sponsor, please visit the Laravel Patreon page.

Premium Partners


Thank you for considering contributing to the Laravel framework! The contribution guide can be found in the Laravel documentation.

Code of Conduct

In order to ensure that the Laravel community is welcoming to all, please review and abide by the Code of Conduct.

Security Vulnerabilities

If you discover a security vulnerability within Laravel, please send an e-mail to Taylor Otwell via taylor@laravel.com. All security vulnerabilities will be promptly addressed.


The Laravel framework is open-sourced software licensed under the MIT license.


Yii Framework

Yii 2 is a modern framework designed to be a solid foundation for your PHP application.

It is fast, secure and efficient and works right out of the box pre-configured with reasonable defaults.
The framework is easy to adjust to meet your needs, because Yii has been designed to be flexible.

Latest Stable Version
Total Downloads
Build Status
Code Coverage
Scrutinizer Quality Score


  • The minimum required PHP version of Yii is PHP 5.4.
  • It works best with PHP 7.
  • Follow the Definitive Guide
    in order to get step by step instructions.




The framework is Open Source powered by an excellent community.

You may join us and:

Reporting Security issues

Please refer to a special page at the website
describing proper workflow for security issue reports.

Directory Structure

build/               internally used build tools
docs/ documentation
framework/ core framework code
tests/ tests of the core framework code

Spreading the Word

Acknowledging or citing Yii 2 is as important as direct contributions.

In presentations

If you are giving a presentation or talk featuring work that makes use of Yii 2 and would like to acknowledge it,
we suggest using our logo on your title slide.

In projects

If you are using Yii 2 as part of an OpenSource project, a way to acknowledge it is to
use a special badge in your README:


If your code is hosted at GitHub, you can place the following in your README.md file to get the badge:



Support this project by becoming a sponsor or a backer.

OpenCollective sponsors OpenCollective backers


React · GitHub license npm version CircleCI Status PRs Welcome

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces.

  • Declarative: React makes it painless to create interactive UIs. Design simple views for each state in your application, and React will efficiently update and render just the right components when your data changes. Declarative views make your code more predictable, simpler to understand, and easier to debug.
  • Component-Based: Build encapsulated components that manage their own state, then compose them to make complex UIs. Since component logic is written in JavaScript instead of templates, you can easily pass rich data through your app and keep state out of the DOM.
  • Learn Once, Write Anywhere: We don’t make assumptions about the rest of your technology stack, so you can develop new features in React without rewriting existing code. React can also render on the server using Node and power mobile apps using React Native.

Learn how to use React in your own project.


React has been designed for gradual adoption from the start, and you can use as little or as much React as you need:

You can use React as a <script> tag from a CDN, or as a react package on npm.


You can find the React documentation on the website.

Check out the Getting Started page for a quick overview.

The documentation is divided into several sections:

You can improve it by sending pull requests to this repository.


We have several examples on the website. Here is the first one to get you started:

function HelloMessage({ name }) {
return <div>Hello {name}</div>;

<HelloMessage name="Taylor" />,

This example will render “Hello Taylor” into a container on the page.

You’ll notice that we used an HTML-like syntax; we call it JSX. JSX is not required to use React, but it makes code more readable, and writing it feels like writing HTML. If you’re using React as a <script> tag, read this section on integrating JSX; otherwise, the recommended JavaScript toolchains handle it automatically.


The main purpose of this repository is to continue evolving React core, making it faster and easier to use. Development of React happens in the open on GitHub, and we are grateful to the community for contributing bugfixes and improvements. Read below to learn how you can take part in improving React.

Code of Conduct

Facebook has adopted a Code of Conduct that we expect project participants to adhere to. Please read the full text so that you can understand what actions will and will not be tolerated.

Contributing Guide

Read our contributing guide to learn about our development process, how to propose bugfixes and improvements, and how to build and test your changes to React.

Good First Issues

To help you get your feet wet and get you familiar with our contribution process, we have a list of good first issues that contain bugs which have a relatively limited scope. This is a great place to get started.


React is MIT licensed.


Vue logo

Build Status Coverage Status Downloads Version License Chat
Build Status

Supporting Vue.js

Vue.js is an MIT-licensed open source project with its ongoing development made possible entirely by the support of these awesome backers. If you’d like to join them, please consider:

What’s the difference between Patreon and OpenCollective?

Funds donated via Patreon go directly to support Evan You’s full-time work on Vue.js. Funds donated via OpenCollective are managed with transparent expenses and will be used for compensating work and expenses for core team members or sponsoring community events. Your name/logo will receive proper recognition and exposure by donating on either platform.

Special Sponsors

Platinum Sponsors

Platinum Sponsors (China)

Gold Sponsors

Sponsors via Open Collective




Vue (pronounced /vjuː/, like view) is a progressive framework for building user interfaces. It is designed from the ground up to be incrementally adoptable, and can easily scale between a library and a framework depending on different use cases. It consists of an approachable core library that focuses on the view layer only, and an ecosystem of supporting libraries that helps you tackle complexity in large Single-Page Applications.

Browser Compatibility

Vue.js supports all browsers that are ES5-compliant (IE8 and below are not supported).


Project Status Description
vue-router vue-router-status Single-page application routing
vuex vuex-status Large-scale state management
vue-cli vue-cli-status Project scaffolding
vue-loader vue-loader-status Single File Component (*.vue file) loader for webpack
vue-server-renderer vue-server-renderer-status Server-side rendering support
vue-class-component vue-class-component-status TypeScript decorator for a class-based API
vue-rx vue-rx-status RxJS integration
vue-devtools vue-devtools-status Browser DevTools extension


To check out live examples and docs, visit vuejs.org.


For questions and support please use the official forum or community chat. The issue list of this repo is exclusively for bug reports and feature requests.


Please make sure to read the Issue Reporting Checklist before opening an issue. Issues not conforming to the guidelines may be closed immediately.


Detailed changes for each release are documented in the release notes.

Stay In Touch


Please make sure to read the Contributing Guide before making a pull request. If you have a Vue-related project/component/tool, add it with a pull request to this curated list!

Thank you to all the people who already contributed to Vue!



Copyright (c) 2013-present, Yuxi (Evan) You


jQuery — New Wave JavaScript

FOSSA Status


Contribution Guides

In the spirit of open source software development, jQuery always encourages community code contribution. To help you get started and before you jump into writing code, be sure to read these important contribution guidelines thoroughly:

  1. Getting Involved
  2. Core Style Guide
  3. Writing Code for jQuery Foundation Projects

Environments in which to use jQuery

  • Browser support
  • jQuery also supports Node, browser extensions, and other non-browser environments.

What you need to build your own jQuery

To build jQuery, you need to have the latest Node.js/npm and git 1.7 or later. Earlier versions might work, but are not supported.

For Windows, you have to download and install git and Node.js.

macOS users should install Homebrew. Once Homebrew is installed, run brew install git to install git,
and brew install node to install Node.js.

Linux/BSD users should use their appropriate package managers to install git and Node.js, or build from source
if you swing that way. Easy-peasy.

How to build your own jQuery

First, clone the jQuery git repo.

Then, enter the jquery directory and run the build script:

cd jquery && npm run build

The built version of jQuery will be put in the dist/ subdirectory, along with the minified copy and associated map file.

If you want to create custom build or help with jQuery development, it would be better to install grunt command line interface as a global package:

npm install -g grunt-cli

Make sure you have grunt installed by testing:

grunt -V

Now by running the grunt command, in the jquery directory, you can build a full version of jQuery, just like with an npm run build command:


There are many other tasks available for jQuery Core:

grunt -help


Special builds can be created that exclude subsets of jQuery functionality.
This allows for smaller custom builds when the builder is certain that those parts of jQuery are not being used.
For example, an app that only used JSONP for $.ajax() and did not need to calculate offsets or positions of elements could exclude the offset and ajax/xhr modules.

Any module may be excluded except for core, and selector. To exclude a module, pass its path relative to the src folder (without the .js extension).

Some example modules that can be excluded are:

  • ajax: All AJAX functionality: $.ajax(), $.get(), $.post(), $.ajaxSetup(), .load(), transports, and ajax event shorthands such as .ajaxStart().
  • ajax/xhr: The XMLHTTPRequest AJAX transport only.
  • ajax/script: The <script> AJAX transport only; used to retrieve scripts.
  • ajax/jsonp: The JSONP AJAX transport only; depends on the ajax/script transport.
  • css: The .css() method. Also removes all modules depending on css (including effects, dimensions, and offset).
  • css/showHide: Non-animated .show(), .hide() and .toggle(); can be excluded if you use classes or explicit .css() calls to set the display property. Also removes the effects module.
  • deprecated: Methods documented as deprecated but not yet removed.
  • dimensions: The .width() and .height() methods, including inner- and outer- variations.
  • effects: The .animate() method and its shorthands such as .slideUp() or .hide("slow").
  • event: The .on() and .off() methods and all event functionality.
  • event/trigger: The .trigger() and .triggerHandler() methods.
  • offset: The .offset(), .position(), .offsetParent(), .scrollLeft(), and .scrollTop() methods.
  • wrap: The .wrap(), .wrapAll(), .wrapInner(), and .unwrap() methods.
  • core/ready: Exclude the ready module if you place your scripts at the end of the body. Any ready callbacks bound with jQuery() will simply be called immediately. However, jQuery(document).ready() will not be a function and .on("ready", ...) or similar will not be triggered.
  • deferred: Exclude jQuery.Deferred. This also removes jQuery.Callbacks. Note that modules that depend on jQuery.Deferred(AJAX, effects, core/ready) will not be removed and will still expect jQuery.Deferred to be there. Include your own jQuery.Deferred implementation or exclude those modules as well (grunt custom:-deferred,-ajax,-effects,-core/ready).
  • exports/global: Exclude the attachment of global jQuery variables ($ and jQuery) to the window.
  • exports/amd: Exclude the AMD definition.

The build process shows a message for each dependent module it excludes or includes.

AMD name

As an option, you can set the module name for jQuery’s AMD definition. By default, it is set to “jquery”, which plays nicely with plugins and third-party libraries, but there may be cases where you’d like to change this. Simply set the "amd" option:

grunt custom --amd="custom-name"

Or, to define anonymously, set the name to an empty string.

grunt custom --amd=""

Custom Build Examples

To create a custom build, first check out the version:

git pull; git checkout VERSION

Where VERSION is the version you want to customize. Then, make sure all Node dependencies are installed:

npm install

Create the custom build using the grunt custom option, listing the modules to be excluded.

Exclude all ajax functionality:

grunt custom:-ajax

Excluding css removes modules depending on CSS: effects, offset, dimensions.

grunt custom:-css

Exclude a bunch of modules:

grunt custom:-ajax/jsonp,-css,-deprecated,-dimensions,-effects,-offset,-wrap

There is also a special alias to generate a build with the same configuration as the official jQuery Slim build is generated:

grunt custom:slim

For questions or requests regarding custom builds, please start a thread on the Developing jQuery Core section of the forum. Due to the combinatorics and custom nature of these builds, they are not regularly tested in jQuery’s unit test process.

Running the Unit Tests

Make sure you have the necessary dependencies:

npm install

Start grunt watch or npm start to auto-build jQuery as you work:

grunt watch

Run the unit tests with a local server that supports PHP. Ensure that you run the site from the root directory, not the “test” directory. No database is required. Pre-configured php local servers are available for Windows and Mac. Here are some options:

Building to a different directory

To copy the built jQuery files from /dist to another directory:

grunt && grunt dist:/path/to/special/location/

With this example, the output files would be:


To add a permanent copy destination, create a file in dist/ called “.destination.json”. Inside the file, paste and customize the following:


"/Absolute/path/to/other/destination": true

Additionally, both methods can be combined.

Essential Git

As the source code is handled by the Git version control system, it’s useful to know some features used.


If you want to purge your working directory back to the status of upstream, the following commands can be used (remember everything you’ve worked on is gone after these):

git reset --hard upstream/main
git clean -fdx


For feature/topic branches, you should always use the --rebase flag to git pull, or if you are usually handling many temporary “to be in a github pull request” branches, run the following to automate this:

git config branch.autosetuprebase local

(see man git-config for more information)

Handling merge conflicts

If you’re getting merge conflicts when merging, instead of editing the conflicted files manually, you can use the feature
git mergetool. Even though the default tool xxdiff looks awful/old, it’s rather useful.

The following are some commands that can be used there:

  • Ctrl + Alt + M - automerge as much as possible
  • b - jump to next merge conflict
  • s - change the order of the conflicted lines
  • u - undo a merge
  • left mouse button - mark a block to be the winner
  • middle mouse button - mark a line to be the winner
  • Ctrl + S - save
  • Ctrl + Q - quit

QUnit Reference

Test methods

expect( numAssertions );

Note: QUnit’s eventual addition of an argument to stop/start is ignored in this test suite so that start and stop can be passed as callbacks without worrying about their parameters.

Test assertions

ok( value, [message] );
equal( actual, expected, [message] );
notEqual( actual, expected, [message] );
deepEqual( actual, expected, [message] );
notDeepEqual( actual, expected, [message] );
strictEqual( actual, expected, [message] );
notStrictEqual( actual, expected, [message] );
throws( block, [expected], [message] );

Test Suite Convenience Methods Reference (See test/data/testinit.js)

Returns an array of elements with the given IDs

q( ... );


q("main", "foo", "bar");

=> [ div#main, span#foo, input#bar ]

Asserts that a selection matches the given IDs

t( testName, selector, [ "array", "of", "ids" ] );


t("Check for something", "//[a]", ["foo", "bar"]);

Fires a native DOM event without going through jQuery

fireNative( node, eventType )


fireNative( jQuery("#elem")[0], "click" );

Add random number to url to stop caching

url( "some/url" );



=> "data/index.html?10538358428943"


=> "data/mock.php?foo=bar&10538358345554"

Run tests in an iframe

Some tests may require a document other than the standard test fixture, and
these can be run in a separate iframe. The actual test code and assertions
remain in jQuery’s main test files; only the minimal test fixture markup
and setup code should be placed in the iframe file.

testIframe( testName, fileName,
function testCallback(
assert, jQuery, window, document,
[ additional args ] ) {
} );

This loads a page, constructing a url with fileName "./data/" + fileName.
The iframed page determines when the callback occurs in the test by
including the “/test/data/iframeTest.js” script and calling
startIframeTest( [ additional args ] ) when appropriate. Often this
will be after either document ready or window.onload fires.

The testCallback receives the QUnit assert object created by testIframe
for this test, followed by the global jQuery, window, and document from
the iframe. If the iframe code passes any arguments to startIframeTest,
they follow the document argument.


If you have any questions, please feel free to ask on the
Developing jQuery Core forum or in #jquery on irc.freenode.net.